Original in fr Eric SEIGNE
fr to en:John Perr
Eric works for the free software world. Programming applications dedicated to data base access on the web is his daily duty with tools such as PostGreSQL ,MySQL and PHP3.
This article explains how to easily configure DHCP on a network.
The articles aim is to present :
Our first step is to create a blank configuration file which will
be able to accept all clients on the network.
I am using here the network configuration of the Slash Party #2 for which I tried to configure a proper Linux server.
<file dhcpd.conf> default-lease-time 86400; max-lease-time 604800; get-lease-hostnames true; option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; option domain-name "slach2-100.party"; option domain-name-servers 192.168.12.1; option interface-mtu 1500; subnet 192.168.12.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 # default gateway option routers 192.168.12.1; option broadcast-address 192.168.12.255; range 192.168.12.50 192.168.12.200; </file>
Once your DHCP server is running (using dhcp start or a similar command according
to your Linux distribution), you can start client stations on the network. They should have been
configured to obtain automatically an IP address.
As soon as clients ask for an address from the DHCP server, a bloc such as this one will be added to the file dhcpd.leases:
<bloc attributed to a dhcp client> lease 192.168.12.58 starts 2 1999/08/24 06:28:48; ends 3 1999/08/25 06:28:48; hardware ethernet 00:10:5a:2e:56:a7; uid 01:00:10:5a:2e:56:a7; client-hostname "KLUSTER"; </bloc>
So, once all the clients have obtained an IP address from the server, the dhcpd.leases file will look like this:
<file dhcpd.leases> lease 192.168.12.58 starts 2 1999/08/24 06:28:48; ends 3 1999/08/25 06:28:48; hardware ethernet 00:10:5a:2e:56:a7; uid 01:00:10:5a:2e:56:a7; client-hostname "KLUSTER"; lease 192.168.12.53 starts 2 1999/08/24 05:42:22; ends 3 1999/08/25 05:42:22; hardware ethernet 00:80:ad:97:e1:76; uid 01:00:80:ad:97:e1:76; client-hostname "ceddz"; lease 192.168.12.54 starts 2 1999/08/24 03:07:26; ends 3 1999/08/25 03:07:26; hardware ethernet 00:80:ad:97:e1:7d; uid 01:00:80:ad:97:e1:7d; client-hostname "SDS"; lease 192.168.12.67 starts 2 1999/08/24 02:52:19; ends 3 1999/08/25 02:52:19; hardware ethernet 00:50:04:45:e1:65; uid 01:00:50:04:45:e1:65; client-hostname "HOMER"; lease 192.168.12.64 starts 2 1999/08/24 01:26:05; ends 3 1999/08/25 01:26:05; hardware ethernet 00:80:ad:97:e2:1c; uid 01:00:80:ad:97:e2:1c; client-hostname "chAwArmA"; lease 192.168.12.59 starts 2 1999/08/24 01:14:06; ends 3 1999/08/25 01:14:06; hardware ethernet 00:00:21:2c:30:e7; uid 01:00:00:21:2c:30:e7; client-hostname "WOOKIE"; </file>
Next, it is necessary to convert our "open" DHCP to a static and more secure one. This is done using the now proper dhcp.lease we just created and converting it to what I call a static dhcp.
What are the differences between a static and an open DHCP? As far as I am concerned, an open DHCP allows any computer connected to the network to obtain an IP address and usable network parameters. This is a big security hole, any unauthorized pirate could physically connect himself to the network and obtain good network parameters :( To counter such an attack, I use in the static DHCP. Each IP address is only given to clients with corresponding Mac of the associated Ethernet adapter. It is therefore easier to detect an intrusion.
<file dhcpd.conf> default-lease-time 86400; max-lease-time 604800; get-lease-hostnames true; option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; option domain-name "slach2-100.party"; option domain-name-servers 192.168.12.1; option lpr-servers 192.168.12.1; option interface-mtu 1500; subnet 192.168.12.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 # default gateway option routers 192.168.12.1; option broadcast-address 192.168.12.255; # Those not in the dhcp # will get ip between .10 et .50 range 192.168.12.10 192.168.12.50; host hardware ethernet 00:10:5a:2e:56:a7; fixed-address "kluster.slach2-100.party"; host hardware ethernet 00:80:ad:97:e1:76; fixed-address "ceddz.slach2-100.party"; host hardware ethernet 00:80:ad:97:e1:7d; fixed-address "sds.slach2-100.party"; host hardware ethernet 00:40:95:49:0b:a5; fixed-address "saigneur.slach2-100.party"; host hardware ethernet 00:50:04:45:e1:65; fixed-address "homer.slach2-100.party"; </file>
WARNING: If you do not have a DNS server running, the file dhcp.conf must use IP addresses and not machine names.
<extracted from dhcpd.conf whithout dns> host hardware ethernet 00:40:95:49:0b:a5; fixed-address "192.168.12.57"; host hardware ethernet 00:50:04:45:e1:65; fixed-address "192.168.12.67"; </extract>
I wrote a small Perl script which converts the file dhcpd.leases into a static dhcp configuration file.
Why stop along the way when we could configure the DNS server at the same time?
The same Perl script, with option -dns, will build files named.$domaine.ajouter and named.$domaine.rev.ajouter that you should check before adding them to your own dns reverse dns files.
Moreover, it is necessary to fill the named.conf file with parameters from your own domain. For instance:
<add to file named.conf> zone "slach2-100.party" type master; file "named.slach2-100"; ; zone "12.168.192.in-addr.arpa" type master; file "named.slach2-100.rev"; ; </add>
Congratulate yourself, you now have a working dhcp and dns configuration.
Available for the same price (even better when it is free :), the configuration of "Network Neighborhood" from window machines. Here is the story with a small drawing and explanations:
At Slach 2 (A demo party), I installed two networks, one was a 10 Mbits and the other a 100 Mbits (for privileged users at that time...). The major problem was: both networks could not "see" each other though the "Network Neighborhood" of windows.
The solution is WINS. WINS allow to declare, on the network, a server which holds a list of links between IPs and "name of several domains". It is a sort of master for networks R1 and R2.
It is therefore necessary to configure a WINS server and clients so that they use it and create an IP gateway between these two networks.
Wins is well supported by Samba :)
------------------- I I I Network R1 I I I I 192.168.0.0 I I 255.255.255.0 I -------+----------- | -----|----- eth0: 192.168.0.1 Linux Server eth1: 192.168.100.1 -----|----- | -------+----------- I I I Network R2 I I I I 192.168.100.0 I I 255.255.255.0 I -------------------
dhcpd.conf is modified in order to auto-configure clients using our wins server :). Without dhcp, it would have been necessary to configure each client individually in order to activate their access to the wins server!
WARNING: DO NOT FORGET TO ADD THE FOLLOWING LINES TO YOUR DHCPD.CONF IN ORDER FOR YOUR WINS SERVER TO BE USED BY CLIENTS
<file dhcpd.conf> [...] option routers 192.168.0.1; option netbios-name-servers 192.168.0.1; option netbios-dd-server 192.168.0.1; option netbios-node-type 8; [...] </file>
To have a working wins server, I have a working Samba, configured as follows:
<file smb.conf> ; validated with samba 2.0.5 [global] workgroup = rycks.com server string = Linux Box comment = Linux Box netbios name = pantoufle volume = pantoufle guest only = yes guest account = nobody log file = /var/log/samba-log.%m max log size = 50 share modes = yes security = share socket options = TCP_NODELAY os level = 33 ; Configured as network master domain master = yes local master = yes preferred master = yes ; Activate wins support wins support = yes wins proxy = yes ; FTP sharing [ftp] path = /home/ftp/pub public = yes printable = no guest ok = yes </file>
It is necessary to restart the servers, dhcp, samba and dns if modifications
have been made. Restart also dhcp clients so that they take into account the new
configuration. Watch for groups on the "other" network in the "network neighborhood".
Given the usual delay windows needs to bring new machines into the "network neighborhood" I suggest you look for a computer using its name. Try to find a computer on the network you are on, then one from the "other" network.
If you can "see" machines from the outside but cannot access them, you need to
configure the gateway so that it acts as a real gateway between the two networks.
For more informations about this topic, take a look at ipchains.
Usually it is necessary to use something similar to:
#Reset chains ipchains -F #Activate masquerading #to check according to default etc. ipchains -A forward -i eth0 -j MASQ
Be careful, if the dhcp server is used in two areas at the same time, there will only be one dns file on the output from the program... It will then be necessary to sort the file manually.
I hope this document will be useful. Please feel free to contact me for comments or questions.
For a deeper insight of the various parts, consult:
Updates are frequent, check the following address for the latest French version on the site http://www.rycks.com/erics/linux/